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Trends Forex Free Download E-book

Trends Forex Free Download E-book
Hello
Currently there are many strategies and indicators that always promise great returns. But in the end they fail and the reality is very different.
What has worked for me is trading only trends in price. The noise that price, ranges and accumulations make I just ignore. I only trade trends.
I focus on the major pairs of the Forex Market. It really works because my strategy is based on 100% "Price Action" and not indicators.
I leave you an ebook that may interest you. "Understanding The Myths Of Market Trends And Patterns" Download free.
If you find the software interesting, I'll leave you the url so you can review it.
FXTrendy
Thank you and regards
Core Business JG

https://preview.redd.it/84tyd8s5wau51.png?width=980&format=png&auto=webp&s=7153949f7591ad5a951115748847f0512cd6cf76
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Power your forex endeavor with relevant knowledge! Get the FREE e-book from Traderpulse, which is full of practical tips. Read and get revealed the secrets of pro traders! Download now and set to make winning trades. https://traderpulse.com/forex-trading-strategies/

Power your forex endeavor with relevant knowledge! Get the FREE e-book from Traderpulse, which is full of practical tips. Read and get revealed the secrets of pro traders! Download now and set to make winning trades. https://traderpulse.com/forex-trading-strategies/ submitted by traderpulse to u/traderpulse [link] [comments]

This e-book reveals the strategies used by forex experts. Support and resistance levels in trends and uncharted territories and ideal risk-reward ratio to be followed are explained. Download it FREE & know the secret of the pros. https://traderpulse.com/forex-trading-strategies/

This e-book reveals the strategies used by forex experts. Support and resistance levels in trends and uncharted territories and ideal risk-reward ratio to be followed are explained. Download it FREE & know the secret of the pros. https://traderpulse.com/forex-trading-strategies/ submitted by traderpulse to u/traderpulse [link] [comments]

This e-book reveals the strategies used by forex experts. Support and resistance levels in trends and uncharted territories and ideal risk-reward ratio to be followed are explained. Download it FREE & know the secret of the pros. https://traderpulse.com/forex-trading-strategies/

This e-book reveals the strategies used by forex experts. Support and resistance levels in trends and uncharted territories and ideal risk-reward ratio to be followed are explained. Download it FREE & know the secret of the pros. https://traderpulse.com/forex-trading-strategies/ submitted by traderpulse to u/traderpulse [link] [comments]

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Knowledge is power! And nobody can deny it. Use the FREE E-book from Traderpulse which comes with secret strategies of pro-traders. Download it now and enrich your forex know hows. https://traderpulse.com/forex-trading-strategies/ submitted by traderpulse to u/traderpulse [link] [comments]

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Learn the best forex strategies in this lockdown period. No need to spend a dime! The secret earning strategies of pro traders is completely revealed and this FREE E-book is from a trading expert company Traderpulse. Download now! https://traderpulse.com/forex-trading-strategies/

Learn the best forex strategies in this lockdown period. No need to spend a dime! The secret earning strategies of pro traders is completely revealed and this FREE E-book is from a trading expert company Traderpulse. Download now! https://traderpulse.com/forex-trading-strategies/ submitted by traderpulse to u/traderpulse [link] [comments]

Knowledge is power! And nobody can deny it. Use the FREE E-book from Traderpulse which comes with secret strategies of pro-traders. Download it now and enrich your forex know hows. https://traderpulse.com/forex-trading-strategies/

Knowledge is power! And nobody can deny it. Use the FREE E-book from Traderpulse which comes with secret strategies of pro-traders. Download it now and enrich your forex know hows. https://traderpulse.com/forex-trading-strategies/ submitted by traderpulse to u/traderpulse [link] [comments]

Power your forex endeavor with relevant knowledge! Get the FREE e-book from Traderpulse, which is full of practical tips. Read and get revealed the secrets of pro traders! Download now and set to make winning trades. https://traderpulse.com/forex-trading-strategies/

Power your forex endeavor with relevant knowledge! Get the FREE e-book from Traderpulse, which is full of practical tips. Read and get revealed the secrets of pro traders! Download now and set to make winning trades. https://traderpulse.com/forex-trading-strategies/ submitted by traderpulse to u/traderpulse [link] [comments]

This e-book reveals the strategies used by forex experts. Support and resistance levels in trends and uncharted territories and ideal risk-reward ratio to be followed are explained. Download it FREE & know the secret of the pros. https://traderpulse.com/forex-trading-strategies/

This e-book reveals the strategies used by forex experts. Support and resistance levels in trends and uncharted territories and ideal risk-reward ratio to be followed are explained. Download it FREE & know the secret of the pros. https://traderpulse.com/forex-trading-strategies/ submitted by traderpulse to u/traderpulse [link] [comments]

Forex Audio Book, 40 Audios In MP3 Format, Free Download

Forex Audio Book, 40 Audios In MP3 Format, Free Download
Forexearlywarning now has a free forex audio book for online listening from any mobile device or download to your hard drive. Our trading system is great at making pips, so this might be the best forex trading audio book available for traders to use. You can also follow along each audio with our illustrated articles. Click on the link below to access our great forex audio book.
FOREX AUDIO BOOK
https://preview.redd.it/aus1c2wfn3851.jpg?width=411&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=da6513f80ce7a9bfbb8a33962fe3f35d3d0e5998
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DOWNLOAD PDF Trading Bible: This Book Includes- Day Trading Strategies, Forex for Beginner s, Proven Trading Money Making Strategy, Options Trading for Beginners, Options: Advanced Strategies and Techniques By Branden Lee

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DOWNLOAD PDF Day Trading: for Beginners: The Day Trading Guide for Making Money with Stocks, Options, Forex and More (Day Trading Strategies, Penny Stocks, Swing Trading, Options Trading Book 1) By Baron McBane

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Download Free Forex Book

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E-books Free Download: Tips and tricks on trading binary options and forex - Make money in 60s

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[Guide] Hal-hal esensial yang wajib dimiliki mahasiswa.

Selamat pagi! Salam mahasiswa!
Terinspirasi dari komen-komen di thread gua sebelumnya, gua ingin compile beberapa must-have tools, stuff, and websites untuk kalian yang baru saja jadi mahasiswa atau sedang menjalani studi.
Gue akan memisahkan ke beberapa kategori, yaitu Wajib Punya, Wajib Punya Untuk Anak [Jurusan], Boleh Punya, Cukup Tau, dan Jangan Pernah Sentuh. Dalam kategori tersebut akan diisi dengan kombinasi apps, website, dan alat-alat fisik. Untuk yang bersifat bajakan, sorry to say gua gak akan link di sini, kecuali Sci Hub atau Gen Lib.
Bagi redditor yang bukan anak psikologi, tolong bantuin gua ya dengan comment berisi suggestion kalian.

WAJIB PUNYA

  1. WhatsApp, LINE, dan sometimes Telegram. : Ya menurut lo aja deh, hari gini masih SMS?
  2. Flash drive : Get an 8GB stick, walaupun sekarang udah serba digital, kadang dosen masih minta print-out tugas. Plus, tukang fotokopi pasti sibuk dan gak ada waktu buka e-mail (walaupun ada), akan lebih praktis kalau data yang mau lo print atau submit pindahin dulu ke sini. Side note : Untuk anak DKV, Arsitektur, Desain Produk, Musik, dan Film, sepertinya kalian wajib beli external hard-drive minimal 500GB. Kalau bisa SSD ya, biar file terus protected (tapi agak mahal).
  3. Google Drive dan isinya (Sheets, Docs, Draw, Slides) : Lo akan mobile for most of your campus life, GDrive gunanya bukan hanya sebagai backup tapi sebagai base of operations dari perkuliahan lo. Separate folders into semesters, lalu di dalamnya bikin folder per matkul, dan di dalamnya pun ada folder buku, tugas, class notes, and etc.
  4. Google Calendar : Start planning through this app. Its highly underrated and I suggest you take time and learn how GCal works. Most people only use this after they started working, getting a head start is always better.
  5. Mendeley atau reference manager lain : Lu akan menghabiskan waktu 4 tahun baca artikel ilmiah, kadang mereka suka aneh formatting filenya kalo di-download dan mereka udah pasti gak appealing untuk di-save di laptop. Mendeley cuts off all of the problems and puts all of your references in one place. (Available on desktop and mobile)
  6. Google Scholar : Berhubungan dengan sebelumnya, Google Scholar akan menjadi wikipedia elu di perguruan tinggi. You will access this site almost every day in uni.
  7. Genesis Library : Adalah perpustakaan terlengkap di jagad internet. Gak usah beli textbook kalau lu gak mampu, download aja di sini.
    1. Side points : Perpusnas punya akses e-book gratis pula, mostly koleksi mereka ada di situ. Appnya bisa dicari di Google Play Store (iOS setau gua belom ada).
  8. Sci-hub : This is the scalpel of academia, the tool of a true mahasiswa. Sometimes lo akan ketemu artikel yang BAGUS, tapi sayang lo harus bayar ke publishernya. Nah, this bypasses that and you can have the PDF for FREEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE. Add extensionnya https://github.com/allanino/sci-hub-fy
  9. E-book manager like Calibre (for PC and iOS) and Aldiko (for Android) : Pretty self-explanatory karena most of the time mahasiswa tingkat awal itu gak tau cara manage folder di laptop.
  10. m-Banking app from your bank : Sekarang apa-apa sudah serba digital, belom lagi kalau lo butuh bayar-bayar atau patungan sama temen. Dengan adanya mbanking app, lo udah gak butuh ke ATM. Bahkan, sekarang mbanking bisa bayar ke OVO, Gopay, or Shoppee Pay lewat QRIS.
  11. Go-Jek or Grab (and OVO) : Kemana-mana dan bayar apa-apa lebih gampang.
  12. Kartu emoney, Flazz, Brizzi, dan sejenis : Silahkan beli salah satu dari kartu ini untuk kalian yang harus menggunakan moda transportasi seperti KRL atau Transjakarta. Plus, very handy untuk beli air putih di Indo/Alfamart. Kalau bisa yang satu jenis dengan bank kalian, agar top-up dapat dilakukan secara mudah di ATM atau app mbanking (bagi yang memiliki NFC hpnya)
  13. Cheap OEM earphones : You will have some solace from annoying pieces of shit when you're reading or doing assignments. Browse through any ecommerce site and search for "headset samsung/iphone grosir" and buy 10.
  14. Masker : Well, duh.
  15. Zoom/Skype/Hangouts/Microsoft Teams : Please check on your faculty's specification, sekarang lagi pandemi and I don't think you guys are going back to school any soon.
  16. Powerbank : Trust me, you will forget to charge your phone. One powerbank on the ready will be a life saver, especially during late nights.
  17. OpenOffice or LibreOffice : I do not condone the piracy of a certain word processing software. Get open-source and just relax. Alternatively, you can go all-out with Google's existing apps inside Drive.
  18. JASP : I also do not condone the piracy of a certain statistics software.
  19. Canva : Untuk anak-anak non-design yang gak bisa design, ditambah gak punya duit untuk hire designer (ya menurut lo), please take time to learn Canva. I would recommend GIMP a few years ago, but Canva has been gold standard of designing for non-designers.
  20. Sumatra Reader : Lighter and more superior version of Adobe Reader.
  21. 7zip : Lighter and superior version of WinRAR.
  22. CamScanner : For scanning documents. Available on iOS and Android
  23. Condoms : Just, bring it.
  24. Kartu Perpusnas
  25. MSDN : Kadang Microsoft kerjasama dengan kampus, check on your faculty.
  26. Tar tambah lagiiiii.......

WAJIB PUNYA UNTUK ANAK.....

Teknik
  1. Kalkulator scientific : Bisa cari di toko buku atau e-commerce. Get Texas Instrument or Casio.
  2. KOPI SACHET
  3. Meteran
  4. nanti kali ya
Arsitektur
  1. Kopi sachet yang banyak
  2. Kotak P3K
  3. Penggaris segitiga atau meteran
MIPA
  1. Graphic Calculator
Psikologi
  1. APA Publication Manual : Sebagai S.Psi gua akan menekankan PENTINGNYA MEMILIKI PDF INI DI SEMUA DEVICE ELU. Pelajarin dan cross-check semua style tulis dengan editorial style APA. Dosen PASTI BAKAL PERIKSA GAYA TULISAN ELU DENGAN APA.
  2. KBBI : Dosen Psikologi paling terkenal dengan penulisan dan artikulasi kata, tolong pelajari bentuk baku kata-kata bahasa kita.
  3. 3D Brain : Untuk bantu Psiko Abnormal dan Faal.
Hukum
  1. Buku KUHP dan KUHPER, e-book or printed.
  2. Black Law
  3. UU yang berkaitan dengan kelas, e-book or printed.
  4. Printer dengan tinta isi ulang alias nyuntik
CompSci, Teknik Informatika, or Sistem Informatika
  1. Git Student Pack

BOLEH PUNYA

  1. Spotify Premium : Check if your school is eligible for student discount! I do not condone using modified APK for Spotify Premium.
  2. Audacity : Boleh lah punya kalau mau coba-coba bikin podcast.
  3. Da Vinci Resolve : Kalian akan sewaktu-waktu dapet tugas buat edit video, either untuk kelas atau organisasi. Ini software open source yang lumayan powerful untuk editing.
  4. SSDs for laptops : This is me speaking from experience, you'll need this if your risk of being in an accident is high. Upgrading to an SSD is 0-1, not only you get great booting and transfer speeds, but your data is almost always protected if amit-amit ketabrak atau laptop kenapa-napa.
  5. Powerstrip : Ini bisa wajib, bisa enggak. Kadang berguna kalau kalian nugas di cafe, tapi kalian gak mati juga kalau gak punya.
  6. Write Monkey : Ini dapat meng-enhance pengalaman kalian menulis, gue menggunakan program ini saat skripsi. Fungsinya cuma satu : Biar nulis lebih enak. Cocok bagi yang jurusannya rajin ngetik. Again, lo gak akan mati kalo gak punya ini.
  7. Eventbrite : Cocok buat yang pengen cari group activities atau seminar gratisan.
  8. TIX.ID : For the time being, jangan ke bioskop dulu. Tapi TIX suka banyak promo buy1get1. Lumayan buat irit duit.
  9. Trello or Asana : Nah, sebenarnya ini wajib untuk orang kantoran (depends industrinya), tapi menurut gua kalau kalian coba aja pelajarin agile project management, mungkin performance group akan lebih naik. Ditambah ini lagi pandemi, nugas akan lebih gampang menurut gua dengan ini. Kakak-kakak yang udah kerja di kantor agile pasti bisa jelasin.
  10. Jobstreet, Kalibrr, JobsDB, Glints : For work opportunities.
  11. Halodoc : Truth be told, this app have saved my life multiple times. I would suggest a healthy diet, but having this on your phone will not hurt one bit.
  12. Pisau lipat Victorinox : Handy untuk yang berencana jadi anak alam atau bocah camping. But basically handy untuk segala situasi, sih.
  13. Aplikasi sekuritas : Bisa mulai belajar, setau gua macem MNC Sekuritas bisa mulai trading dengan Rp100.000.
  14. Discord : Lumayan handy untuk jadi basis chat angkatan. Tapi, mereka lebih cater ke gaming crowd, walaupun fiturnya sebagus Slack Enterprise, tapi entah kenapa susah banget penetrate mainstream user.
  15. To be added later...........

CUKUP TAU

  1. Netflix : Bisa patungan sama temen-temen. I don't suggest buy shady accounts.
  2. Premier League app : Seru loh bikin liga fantasy sama temen-temen.
  3. GrabKios : Lumayan bisa jual pulsa di kampus.
  4. Saran minum oleh theblackmandarin
  5. To be added later...........

JANGAN PERNAH SENTUH

  1. Kredivo dan any P2P lending app : Tolong banget jangan kejebur sama trap ini. Kalian masih mahasiswa, belom punya penghasilan tetap.
  2. PayTren or any other MLM apps : Idem
  3. Judi bola : Idem.
  4. Rokok : Idem
  5. Forex/Crypto : Idem
  6. Dota 2 : Udah gak usah sentuh.
  7. Mobile Legend : Buang-buang waktu push rank, IP lo gak naek juga.
  8. Amfetamin : Gak baek ngedrug muda-muda.
  9. Red Bull : Gak baek, bisa gak tidur.
  10. Kopi ABC/78C/botolan : Ini sama kayak Red Bull, udah pasti gak tidur.
  11. To be added later...........
Segitu dulu guys, tolong ya kakak-kakak yang sudah lulus mohon ditambah. Terima kasih!
EDIT 1 : Nambahin banyak BUANGET. Thanks mie-sedaap elonelon theblackmandarin debukosmik JanganLupaSkripsian didunianyata ysupr selemenesmilesuponme ichhassesommer ANJINGHARAM AnjingTerang lukuntul imamsupriadiBPK pm-me-your-nenen
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Anyone recommend any books to learn Forex?

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No, the British did not steal $45 trillion from India

This is an updated copy of the version on BadHistory. I plan to update it in accordance with the feedback I got.
I'd like to thank two people who will remain anonymous for helping me greatly with this post (you know who you are)
Three years ago a festschrift for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri was published by Shubhra Chakrabarti, a history teacher at the University of Delhi and Utsa Patnaik, a Marxist economist who taught at JNU until 2010.
One of the essays in the festschirt by Utsa Patnaik was an attempt to quantify the "drain" undergone by India during British Rule. Her conclusion? Britain robbed India of $45 trillion (or £9.2 trillion) during their 200 or so years of rule. This figure was immensely popular, and got republished in several major news outlets (here, here, here, here (they get the number wrong) and more recently here), got a mention from the Minister of External Affairs & returns 29,100 results on Google. There's also plenty of references to it here on Reddit.
Patnaik is not the first to calculate such a figure. Angus Maddison thought it was £100 million, Simon Digby said £1 billion, Javier Estaban said £40 million see Roy (2019). The huge range of figures should set off some alarm bells.
So how did Patnaik calculate this (shockingly large) figure? Well, even though I don't have access to the festschrift, she conveniently has written an article detailing her methodology here. Let's have a look.
How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.
This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.
This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product (indeed, by definition, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain).
Furthermore, Dewey (2019) critiques the 5% interest rate.
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drain
Moving on:
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.
Convenient.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.
- Chandra et al. (1989)
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.
The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019):
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).
Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.
So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019) explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.
So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019), and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983):
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.
While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided.
It's worth noting that Patnaik seems to make no attempt to quantify the benefits of the Raj either, Dewey (2019)'s 2nd criticism:
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)

Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.
Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.
While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.
So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019) again:
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles. India bought something and paid for it. State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.
Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.
It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019):
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.

Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods.
Sunderland (2013) argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.

The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.
It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019):
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.

Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946.
Dewey (1978) points out reliability issues with Indian agriculutural statistics, however this calorie decline persists to this day. Some of it is attributed to less food being consumed at home Smith (2015), a lower infectious disease burden Duh & Spears (2016) and diversified diets Vankatesh et al. (2016).
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.
This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people, much like Japan. The list continues eternally.
Nevertheless, I will charitably examine the given counterfactual anyway. Did pre-colonial India have industrial potential? The answer is a resounding no.
From Gupta (1980):
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period, the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.
A view echoed in Raychaudhuri (1983):
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.
So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986):
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.
The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985):
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatable
So there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground.
1. Several authors have affirmed that Indian identity is a colonial artefact. For example see Rajan 1969:
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally.
or see Bryant 2000:
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist. [...] Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.

Bibliography

Chakrabarti, Shubra & Patnaik, Utsa (2018). Agrarian and other histories: Essays for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri. Colombia University Press
Hickel, Jason (2018). How the British stole $45 trillion from India. The Guardian
Bhuyan, Aroonim & Sharma, Krishan (2019). The Great Loot: How the British stole $45 trillion from India. Indiapost
Monbiot, George (2020). English Landowners have stolen our rights. It is time to reclaim them. The Guardian
Tsjeng, Zing (2020). How Britain Stole $45 trillion from India with trains | Empires of Dirt. Vice
Chaudhury, Dipanjan (2019). British looted $45 trillion from India in today’s value: Jaishankar. The Economic Times
Roy, Tirthankar (2019). How British rule changed India's economy: The Paradox of the Raj. Palgrave Macmillan
Patnaik, Utsa (2018). How the British impoverished India. Hindustan Times
Tuovila, Alicia (2019). Expenditure method. Investopedia
Dewey, Clive (2019). Changing the guard: The dissolution of the nationalist–Marxist orthodoxy in the agrarian and agricultural history of India. The Indian Economic & Social History Review
Chandra, Bipan et al. (1989). India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947. Penguin Books
Frankema, Ewout & Booth, Anne (2019). Fiscal Capacity and the Colonial State in Asia and Africa, c. 1850-1960. Cambridge University Press
Dalal, Sucheta (2019). IL&FS Controversy: Centre is Paying Up on Sovereign Guarantees to ADB, KfW for Group's Loan. TheWire
Chaudhuri, K.N. (1983). X - Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments (1757–1947). Cambridge University Press
Sunderland, David (2013). Financing the Raj: The City of London and Colonial India, 1858-1940. Boydell Press
Dewey, Clive (1978). Patwari and Chaukidar: Subordinate officials and the reliability of India’s agricultural statistics. Athlone Press
Smith, Lisa (2015). The great Indian calorie debate: Explaining rising undernourishment during India’s rapid economic growth. Food Policy
Duh, Josephine & Spears, Dean (2016). Health and Hunger: Disease, Energy Needs, and the Indian Calorie Consumption Puzzle. The Economic Journal
Vankatesh, P. et al. (2016). Relationship between Food Production and Consumption Diversity in India – Empirical Evidences from Cross Section Analysis. Agricultural Economics Research Review
Gupta, Shaibal (1980). Potential of Industrial Revolution in Pre-British India. Economic and Political Weekly
Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1983). I - The mid-eighteenth-century background. Cambridge University Press
Yasuba, Yasukichi (1986). Standard of Living in Japan Before Industrialization: From what Level did Japan Begin? A Comment. The Journal of Economic History
Tomblinson, B.R. (1985). Writing History Sideways: Lessons for Indian Economic Historians from Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press
Rajan, M.S. (1969). The Impact of British Rule in India. Journal of Contemporary History
Bryant, G.J. (2000). Indigenous Mercenaries in the Service of European Imperialists: The Case of the Sepoys in the Early British Indian Army, 1750-1800. War in History
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Guide to Stock Market (Trading in General) Mentoring/Mentorship Programs in the philippines

Hi, may nakikita akong questions about investing/trading and some about trading mentors/gurus societies etc.
This is my opinion depende na sa inyo kung susundin nyo.
ZFT - Zeefreaks tribe,
First, i do respect "Zee" as a trader,his "tribe" teaches or mentors their students using their system to become their own. Generally, Darvas Box, MAs 20 50 100 and RSI are their weapons but mainly its the Price Action and RSI ang parang laman talaga ng System nila and you can only get better through time as with other systems in general. I think they are good, but yun na nga, just good.
Problem:
They charge you with a hefty sum na i don't think na ma jujustify nila, because at the end of the day more or less its you ( along with practice) and your psychology that can help you along the way. Okay, may Trading psych coach daw sila , si Ma'am Celeste (Zee's Gf) pero overtime you will learn about yourself in the process naman.
Zee is justifying the hefty fee because sabi nya before if im not mistaken na the clients are not paying the mentoring alone pero along with it yung "CULTURE" ng ZFT. I say, bullshit. Di nga nya alam na may mga ZFT "mentors" na that are mentoring other people without his knowledge and charging them less but still a very hefty fee. hehe Akala nya wala na pero meron pa, magaling lang talaga magtago.

KIDLAT- hmm , same with ZFT since dun din naman sya nanggaling, Habits you know.

T3 ( The Tattooed Trader)- well, this guy is LEGIT. He trades international markets too not just PSEI. Reasonable Fee. Good guy,prangka din. He doesnt tolerate Bullshit. He wont try to impose his system sayo but instead encourages you to go with the process. That's it.

Gandah Koh ( Trader's Lounge) - He/She provides free content daw. Yes, FREE content pero at the same time sinasabi nya that he/she is just an average trader. Kicks people who patronizes paid mentorship / who belong sa paid mentorship or kahit magtanong ka man lang ng about paid mentorship rage mode na agad tapos kick na agad. Yung mga followers nya ayaw lang talaga gumastos to learn premium content. Biruin nyo? gusto maging free yung investa? lol.
Ironic, why? kasi sabi nya average trader lang daw sya but he/she shuts off people who would want to learn from those who are better than her. To all hehis followers, Eto po tanong ko.
  1. may member ba sa Trader's lounge na consistently profitable na? with rising equity curve?
  2. Do you think the best traders out there did not spend any cent to boost their career to the top?
Simple lang yan. isip isipin nyo. :D

BOH- Superb! yung mga quant models nila ay one of the best if not the best. Very technical and systematic yung BOH and their team ay may credentials to back it up. Yung Fee ay affordable, kayang kaya ng ordinary working people.
Oakbridge (DAVAO)- not much information about them kasi tahimik lang sila ,but what i know is that bigatin yung mentors dun but apart from that i don't know much kaya i can't say anything more.
Bigote (bigote trading financial advocacy) - Eto yung free content na LEGIT. One of the best people i know, he is a caylum trading institute alumni. Eto, you use his system plus master price action.
Open journal by Javi Medina, Matt flores, Ken Arcano - If you dig Elliot wave then they are the guys you want to learn from, the information they provide are all backtested, no guess works just pure juicy contents day in and day out.
Trivia:
They manage funds from various big time clients.
Tomatrader, Jet mojica(from BOH), Joanne (from investa), Bearyo ( from investa) and etc Joined Open Journal.
Javi Medina - ranked 1st the 2020 US investing competition, also he was an investacup champion.
Ken Arcano - top 5 in investacup.
Matt Flores- i dont know much about him though, silent kind of guy.
OJ's system can be used in trading crypto, Forex , commodities, US stocks and other indices.
Caylum Trading Institute - i think di na kailangan e describe pa yung caylum eh. *wink*

So there you go. It's your choice kung how you will take my opinion, you can bash me or what i really don't care. At the end of the day, choice nyo pa rin yon.
Kung ako lang, id go with
  1. Read the trading code by jason cam.
  2. Download any price action videos/books . Ex. Steve nison books
  3. Try out Bigote's framework or enroll with any one of those services , but i would recommend open journal, BOH, T3 or caylum. If you want ZFT or kidlat then go for it.

At the end of the day, stick with one system , be patient, dont shortcut the process, master one setup at a time and improve your trading psychology. I dont want to spread hate, just spitting out my opinion.
You can share this in fb, twitter or any socmed you like or not share this, do whatever you want.
That's all. Stay home to help the frontliners.
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Learn More About the Latest Forex Tools

These FX trading tools lets the user take their own algorithms and strategies and run them together. It allows for algorithmic strategy building along with no need for coding knowledge.

For anyone that wishes to formalise their style of trading using algorithms.

It offers:

• A simple to use drag and drop interface
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• The ability to implement strategies for platforms including cTrader and MT4
• Both videos and e-book for those just starting out

VPS

Want an FX trading tool that will be online 24/7? That's just what VPS (Virtual Private Server) is capable of. It's a remote computer made available to traders that are algorithmic. It gives the option of complete automation for trading, the terminal doesn't even have to stay running. The main benefit of this Fx trading tool is no interruptions. Expect lowered latency and zero down time!

No reboots and protection of EAs are two benefits that have professionals using VPS more often than ever. Even set up will go on without a hitch using an easy step-by-step guide. Of course, having professionals set it up ensures that it's done right, and that traders are trained accordingly.

The Economic Calendar

A simple to use economic calendar is a priceless FX trading tool. It allows the trader to plan his or her day by the minute. Take control of currently released and previous reports that have been released as well as volatility generated and consensus forecasts. Knowing upcoming events that will happen in just the next few hours as well as days, weeks and months gives one an edge on other traders.

Many are happy to know that there are automatic updates and live views of released event data. The ability to view previous events and analyse their effect on the market is invaluable and could easily make for better trades.

Ease of Use

No matter which economic calendar is chosen, one will see all the scheduled events broken down for the day at hand. By selecting an individual event, one will get even more information and data that can help make more than informed decisions on trading.

Expect to see how much time is left until the next event, as well as those that have already happened. Expected volatility is presented as well as prior percentages and an actual consensus. All of these benefits will help anyone make the most informed decisions possible.

Mobile Apps

The Forex calendar is customisable so only what one wants to be informed of is seen. This makes it easy for beginners, and less stressful for experienced traders. One can change the time zone, country, category and volatility level to get detailed results that cater to their needs.

Staying up-to-date on all the latest developments is easy with mobile apps for both Android and Apple devices. The calendar app can also be downloaded so that wherever one goes they have access to whatever information they need.

Conclusion

These are just a few of the FX trading tools available on the market. Aligning with experts in Forex is a smart way to ensure that one is getting the best setup for their personal trading needs and style. Forex can be a complicated platform for trade, but it can also be simple when the right tools and help are obtained.
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